Measles outbreaks confirmed in five areas across the UK
Health officials are warning people to make sure they are immunised against measles as the virus spreads to Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham and Surrey. Measles has the potential to cause large outbreaks and babies under one and people who have not been immunised are most at risk of contracting the highly contagious virus. Here are the symptoms to be aware of
Measles confirmed in the UK
Public Health England is issuing advice to the public following the confirmation of measles cases in the UK. It is advising people to check they are immunised.
As of 11 December 2017, there have been 28 confirmed cases in Leeds, 18 confirmed cases in Liverpool, seven confirmed cases in Surrey, four confirmed cases in Manchester and 13 confirmed cases in Birmingham. All of the cases have been reported in children and adults who have not received two doses of the MMR vaccine.
What are the symptoms of measles?
The first symptoms of measles appear around 10 days after infection, says the NHS. These can include:
- A running nose, sneezing and a cough.
- Sore eyes which might be sensitive to light.
- A high temperature of around 40°C.
- Small white spots on the insides of your cheeks
A full-body rash appears a few days after these symptoms.
Who is at risk of getting measles?
The measles vaccine is incredibly effective, and so measles is now uncommon in the UK. If you think you or your child has measles, you should contact your GP. If you haven't been fully vaccinated (had two doses of the MMR) or haven't had measles previously, you should let your GP know if you've been in contact with someone who has had measles. The MMR vaccine is given in two doses to babies and children before they start school.
Children and young people who have not received 2 doses of MMR vaccine are at risk. Unvaccinated people travelling to Romania, Italy and Germany, where there are currently large outbreaks of measles, are at particularly high risk. Anyone planning to travel to Europe over the Christmas period should check NaTHNaC travel health advice.
Dr Mary Ramsay, Head of Immunisation at PHE, says, “The UK recently achieved WHO measles elimination status and so the overall risk of measles to the UK population is low, however due to ongoing measles outbreaks in Europe, we will continue to see cases in unimmunised individuals and limited onward spread can occur in communities with low MMR coverage and in age groups with very close mixing.”
Measles in babies
Because the first dose of the measles vaccine is not given until 13 months, babies under one are one of the groups most at risk of measles. If you think your baby is showing symptoms of measles, contact your doctor. Your baby should get better in a week or so, but babies very occasionally develop complications which can include vomiting, pneumonia, and febrile convulsions.
If your baby is under six months and you have immunity to measles, it is likely that you passed on your antibodies during pregnancy and he is protected. If your baby is over six months old and has been exposed to measles, it is possible that in some cases he will be given the MMR early, but you should contact your doctor for advice.
Measles in pregnancy
The NHS says that if you're not immune to measles and become infected while you're pregnant there is a risk of miscarriage or stillbirth. There is also a risk that your baby will be born prematurely and have a low birth weight.
How does measles spread?
Measles is highly contagious and spreads through droplets which come out of the nose and mouth of an infected person when they cough or sneeze. You can catch measles by breathing in these droplets. The measles virus can also survive on surfaces for a few hours. Measles is contagious until about four days after an infected person develops a rash.
The WHO recommends that at least 95% of a country's population is vaccinated against the measles because it is so highly contagious.
“I urge all endemic countries to take urgent measures to stop transmission of measles within their borders, and all countries that have already achieved this to keep up their guard and sustain high immunisation coverage. Together we must make sure that the hard-earned progress made towards regional elimination is not lost,” said Dr Jakab.
Which countries are affected by the measles outbreak?
The current measles outbreak has spread across Europe throughout the year. It has the potential to cause large outbreaks wherever immunisation coverage has dropped below the necessary threshold of 95%, says the WHO.
“With steady progress towards elimination over the past two years, it is of particular concern that measles cases are climbing in Europe,” says Dr Zsuzsanna Jakab, WHO Regional Director for Europe. “Today's travel patterns put no person or country beyond the reach of the measles virus. Outbreaks will continue in Europe, as elsewhere, until every country reaches the level of immunization needed to fully protect their populations.”