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Scientific studies

(20 Posts)
amber763 Thu 21-May-20 21:27:42

This might be a daft question but there's so much online on gender studies, on how there are 5 sexes (or more sometimes!!), using intersex people or other medical disorders as pawns in their arguments but I'm struggling to find much of anything published arguing for the two biological sexes. Is it simply because of fear of backlash and their career being ruined? Can anyone point me in the right direction?

Fenlandmountainrescue Thu 21-May-20 21:44:21

Have a look at google scholar

amber763 Thu 21-May-20 22:20:01

I have done already I'm afraid. A few essays but I've been unable to find what I'm looking for. I wanted to use them to back up an argument by the way - I'm not looking to goad the people in feminism. Just thought this might be the place to ask smile

Mermoose Thu 21-May-20 22:42:26

If you're on Twitter you could ask Dr Emma Hilton @fondofbeetles for links. There's also Project Nettie, which collects signatures of scientists asserting that sex is a material reality, not a social construct, and that there are (in humans and most animals) two sexes.
projectnettie.wordpress.com/

I'd say it's not something which is explicitly argued in papers because it's such a long-established fact; there probably aren't any papers arguing that the earth goes round the sun either. However I would expect that in the vast majority of scientific articles that mention sex categories, it's taken for granted that there are two.

amber763 Thu 21-May-20 23:27:03

Thank you. This is perfect

Fenlandmountainrescue Thu 21-May-20 23:53:27

Google scholar brought up a few for me. the two sexes: growing up apart, coming together by Maccoby EE (1999). Was one. Admittedly I haven’t read the whole book.

MoleSmokes Fri 22-May-20 05:14:43

The Paradox Institute:

www.theparadoxinstitute.com/pi.html

Mermoose Fri 22-May-20 11:29:18

amber763 I also find that you can by-pass a lot of the tedious discussion over whether the categories male and female exist by pointing out that anyone who knows what cis and trans mean, knows what male and female mean.
(I reject 'cis' because it implies a belief in gender identity which I find sexist, regressive and incoherent, but it still rests on a knowledge of biological sex).

hellotoday27 Fri 22-May-20 11:55:19

I wonder if there's not much research at that level saying there are 2 sexes as it's pretty much covered in every biology textbook in the country.

The only research that would be worth publishing is that which challenges this already very well known fact.

It's a bit sad that people are needing to find current research to support the argument that there are 2 sexes and the existence of intersex/DSD doesn't negate that fact.

Xpectations Sun 24-May-20 02:09:02

I wonder if there's not much research at that level saying there are 2 sexes as it's pretty much covered in every biology textbook in the country.

Agreed.
Papers that detail the (epi)genetic mechanisms responsible for sexual development are helpful. SRY gene is well-studied in male sexual development, female sexual development is less clear. But, more is being discovered, could look at RSPO1 and Xist protein for X inactivation.

Xpectations Sun 24-May-20 02:26:04

You probably don’t need to research that much into it at the molecular level. In utero, we all have both rudimentary ducts that develop into our reproductive systems-Müllerian and Wolffian, regardless of our karyotype. I think these are observable at week 7 of gestation. But, the karyotype will influence which structure develops and which is regressed.
Sry (on Y chromosome) will encourage Wolffian development into a male reproductive system and the Müllerian duct regresses.
As above, the molecular biological development of the Müllerian ducts into female reproductive system is less understood.

FWRLurker Sun 24-May-20 02:36:36

Radio lab is an American science podcast I like that did a series on sex development called “gonads” which covers things pretty well and clearly points out that biological sex is defined by gonads/gamete development.

Unfortunately in the last episode they went off the wall when they interviewed an intersex trans person and suddenly forgot everything they’d just discussed in the previous episode.

Otherwise you can get an undergraduate physiology, anatomy, evolutionary biology, genetics or intro biology textbook. Sex is still covered correctly in Biology departments.

FWRLurker Sun 24-May-20 02:38:37

(Note this person I mentioned identified as both intersex and transgender at various points in their life - intersex and transgender identity are not typically related)

Xpectations Sun 24-May-20 02:56:50

This is also a nice opinion piece from Colin Wright and Emma Hilton reinforcing the sex binary.

www.wsj.com/articles/the-dangerous-denial-of-sex-11581638089

Xpectations Sun 24-May-20 03:00:26

You can follow both on Twitter. Dr Hilton is @FondOfBeetles and she has lengthy threads challenging sex-as-spectrum and the conflation of DSD with transgenderism.

TehBewilderness Sun 24-May-20 04:35:57

Dozens of basic biology books have been published over the years explaining sexual dimorphism in mammals.
I would caution you not to put too much credence in the surveys that are often passed off as studies. A collection of public opinions does not a stud make unless you are studying the accuracy of public opinion.

teawamutu Sun 24-May-20 10:27:30

Emma Hilton head a very good question for those pushing the spectrum bullshit: go on, name the third sex, then.

Not seen a reply yet.

GCGayDad Sun 24-May-20 13:45:41

This interview with Claire Grahame, who has an intersex condition herself, is really excellent and clear. It would probably be easier to quote from this or refer non-scientific people to this to clarify some of the issues. Graham was seen by the TRAs as so dangerous in her reasonable, scientific arguments that they had her permanently removed from Twitter.

womansplaceuk.org/2019/10/21/biological-sex-is-not-a-spectrum-there-are-only-two-sexes-in-humans-with-claire-graham/

FemaleAndLearning Sun 24-May-20 14:06:36

There is a good summary on Fair Play for Women, there may be references.
fairplayforwomen.com/chromosomes-biological-sex-gender/

SolitaryBee Sun 24-May-20 22:44:59

Does anyone have a transcript or share token for the Colin Wright/Emma Hilton article:
www.wsj.com/articles/the-dangerous-denial-of-sex-11581638089?
Thanks.

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