My old cat did this to the wall paper in the hall. We used to spray her with a plant mister every time we saw her about to scratch. It didn't take long to train her to stop. We also repeating the spraying when we replaced the wallpaper to deter her.
We encouraged her to use a scratching post by rubbing catnip on it and gently holding her paws against it. It worked with her. The same technique also worked with my current rescue cat. My current cat also has multiple scratching posts around the house. If they're not there she'll scratch the furniture instead.
This is the reason why my house has not been decorated in the 9 years since I moved in! I dont't think you can stop them. I have 2 cats and my house is a right mess. I am waiting until they die (they are 14 and 13) and then will get the whole house decorated, I wont be having any more pets after this.