I understand your concerns in theory, but in 13 years of practice I have never seen an eye injury attributable to dew claws. The vast majority of dogs, of all breeds, have front dew claws and they rarely cause problems if kept trimmed.
I agree with your vet's reluctance to perform an 'unnecessary' GA but I would consider it if there appeared to be real cause for concern when she is a few months older. However, I would be perfectly happy to remove dew claws while a dog was under GA for some other planned procedure, such as neutering.
So for now, my advice would be to keep the dew claws reasonably short and watch what happens when she grooms. I don't think it is likely to be a problem but if you believe it is, go back and talk to your vet again.
Don't know about the eye thing as I only know about whippets, but we always take the dew claws off our puppies now as we have a bitch who had hers left on and the amount of pain she goes through when she REGULARLY catches and tears it is awful.
The dew claws are removed at about 2 or 3 days - just snipped off with a sharp pair of scissors. Most of the pups don't even wake up when it is done.
However, for an older puppy it becomes a more serious operation which is why vets will not recomend it for older dogs. We looked into having the dew claws removed on the older dog but the vet said it really wasn't worth putthing the dog through the anesthetic.