Your bug problem is most likely Black Cherry Aphids by your description - treatment is simple - they can be washed off with a hose, killed by ladybirds, or sprayed with aphid insecticide.
Given the spread to the honysuckle I suspect they are being farmed by ants for their 'honeydew', an excretory substance which also causes the burnt look on the leaves.
The ants carry them from dying to healthy shoots (hence the spread to the honeyuckle) so one of the most important things to do is to stop the ants from spreading them or your aphid treatment will be in vain.
I coat about 10cm up the base of my trees in vaseline thickly to stop the ants climbing the trunks and then wash off the aphids when I can. Other gardeners prefer nicotine in a daily spray to kill both ants and aphids.
Make sure you're not overfertilising btw - too much nitrate really attracts the aphids.
Watching with interest. Our neighbours had their cherry trees pruned last year and have same affliction. So lots of leaf fall and black bugs falling into our garden. I was told it is an infection and trees unlikely to recover, but they look ok apart from the bugs....
I hope someone can help me. We have a cherry tree that was a bit vigorously pruned by my DP a couple of years ago as it was getting really tall. It has never really thrived since - it gets some blossom and the leaves come out and then about this time of year they suddenly seem to be covered in a layer of some tiny black bug and all the leaves on the ends of the branches curl up and look like they have been burnt. What is wrong with it and is it fixable? I have a feeling we need to chop the thing down. Oh, also this year the black bug seems to have spread to the previoulsy perfectly healthy honeysuckle which is next to it. Thanks!